Abstracts - CDT Nº 25
Humanities and Social Sciencies
[Index] - [Spanish]

Critical Theory, Hermeneutics and Communicative Rationality

Julio De Zan*
Key-Words: Habermas - Gadamer - communicative rationality - hermeneutics

In this paper, the connections between Habermas' theory of communicative rationality and the two traditions from the XX Century German philosophy: a) the original program of the Frankfurt School critical theory and, b) the tradition of hermeneutics in gadamerian reception, were investigated. The research was focused on this second notion, so as to show how to deepen the self-criticism started by Gadamer himself in Truth and Method II is possible within the theoretical framework of the pragmatic turn of philosophy, and to conduct an enhancement of the range of hermeneutic understanding instead of the forgetfulness of logos (Logosvergesenheit), which brings attached the contextualist and pragmatist narrowing of rationality in authors as R. Rorty. In the communicative rationality conception, founded in the universal pragmatism of linguistic communication, reconstructing sense is just a first moment in hermeneutic understanding. But understanding and criticism remain incomplete in themselves unless there is an advancement towards a discussion of claims to validity. Through this path, the theory of rationality and communicative action retrieves in a different fashion the forgotten unity of objective knowledge and morality or theory and praxis.

*Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (UNER), Argentina. E-mail: jdezan@arnet.com.ar

How the meaning of a text is constructed? Search for inferences in reading comprehension

Mabel Pipkin Embón*, Amanda Blaser, Liliana Barsanti, Sonia Luquez, Mónica Sforza, Fabiana Viñas
Key-Words: reading comprehension, inference processing, individual and group situations, school context, interaction strategies.
In this research a modified reproduction of a previous research was made. Five general hypotheses related to the influence of group situations for processing inferences in reading comprehension were tested. We worked with control and experimental groups. The teachers in the sample integrated spontaneously to the project and prior to leading the group situations of their students, they carried out the same tasks as them but with different texts. The subjects were students in primary school level. They were asked to perform different types of tasks in three types of situations: an initial and individual situation, then group situations, and another final and individual situation. The analysis was made in three reading times: on-line, off-line and delay. Most of the hypotheses were verified. The results found on reading behavior and inference processing were favorable to the experimental group -when compared to the control group- in the final individual situation with reference to the initial individual situation. In the experimental group, we verified that those children in a lower school level and with worse reading conditions were the ones who improved more with kids-adult interactive situations, through a "multiple-task" design.
*Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (UNER), Argentina E-mail: mpipkin@satlink.com

Study on the Need and Demand for Healthcare in the La Concepción Neighborhood (Concepción del Uruguay)

Elsa M. Bolli*, Norma Salvi, Norma Retamoza, Florencia Díaz Vidal, Alicia Roh, Sonia Santa María
Key-Words: public health - healthcare services - medical care - socio-environmental risk - social demands

The research was oriented to find out how the community of the "La Concepción" neighborhood, in Concepción del Uruguay (Entre Ríos, Argentina), perceived the needs for healthcare, and what was their demand to healthcare public services, as well as knowing the existing coverage by health insurance and private institutions over the 1996-1998 period, with the goal of recognizing local indicators useful for a better health planning. There were 317 surveys conducted in 1323 individuals, and the socio-environmental risk areas were determined through the Expeditious Environmental Diagnosis (EED) method, according to three levels (high, medium and low). The age group from 16 to 56 years old prevailed, which corresponded to the active production group, with a female predominance. The most relevant signs and symptoms of health alterations were, according to prevalence: respiratory, cardiovascular, osseous and digestive. In general, the surveyed individuals consulted about their symptoms with a physician, first in private institutions; consequently Health Centers were not the entrance door to the Health System. Likewise, a lack of perception was observed in surveyed subjects, regarding their real health problems.

*Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, UNER. Enrique De Vedia 73, (3260) C. Del Uruguay, Argentina. Tel: 54-3442-422359.


Technical and Natural Sciencies, Ingeneering and Technology

Cholesterol Oxidation in Sponge Cake Made with Powdered Eggs

Miguel A. Puttini, Claudia Lessa*, Héctor O. Vale, Alfredo G. Avila, Alfredo Mackinnon
Key Words: cholesterol - oxidation - structure - toxicity

Certain products of cholesterol oxidation (COPs) play an important role in the beginning of atherogenesis, due to its toxic aggression on the endothelium that lines arteries. Detecting these COPs in food and biological material became accelerated since 1980, as a consequence of such methods as gas chromatography and high-resolution liquid chromatography. The COPs have been found in a wide variety of foods, and in this article we present a study oriented to develop a methodology to determine the presence of 7-ketocholesterol in sponge cakes made with powdered egg. The 7-ketocholesterol was chosen as a tracer for cholesterol oxidation due to its presence in a wide range of processed food that contain cholesterol, the linearity in its formation with heat, and its relative stability. Cholesterol oxide in the sponge cake were extracted by a combination of silicic acid column and the dry column process (Maxwell, 1980); a method that breaks up COPs from neutral lipids, phospholipids and nearly all of cholesterol. The use of high-resolution liquid chromatography with an inverted phase column allows the proper resolution of 7-ketocholesterol.

* Facultad de Cs. de la Alimentación, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (UNER), Argentina. E-mail:lesac@fcal.uner.edu.ar

Supercomputers based on PC "clusters"

Diego H. Milone*, Adrián A. Azar, Leonardo H. Rufiner
Key Words: supercomputers, cluster, numerical experimentation, Linux

A "cluster" is a group of interconnected computers that work jointly in the solution of a problem. These systems constitute a flexible solution, of low cost and great scalability, for applications requiring a high capacity of computation and memory. Unlike traditional supercomputers, cluster systems require a smaller initial investment, since they can be constructed from massive use PCs. For this same reason, maintenance and upgrading costs are remarkably reduced. On the other hand, a superior tolerance to failures can be obtained, because when any node of the cluster is damaged, all the others continue working normally, absorbing the total load of the system. From the scalability viewpoint, it is very simple to incorporate new nodes in a cluster and expanding it progressively, with a low investment. This paper summarizes installation, configuration and test tasks of a cluster for parallel computing, made in the Laboratorio de Cibernética, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (FI-UNER). At this moment, the Automatic Speech Recognition Group uses this cluster to conduct its numerical experiments.

* Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (UNER), Argentina. E-mail: d.milone@ieee.org


Agricultural and Medical Sciencies

Control of "caraguatá" (eryngium paniculatum) in naturalized pastures in Entre Ríos*

Víctor H. Lallana*, María del C. Lallana, José H.I. Elizalde, Cristina E. Billard, Gustavo Rochi, Mariela Cristaldo
Key Words: weed (management of) - chemical control - mechanical control

The study aimed to assess control of "caraguatá" in grazing fields with different management alternatives, to allow pastures recovery. Two field trials were made; in one a randomized block design with four treatments and three repetitions was used to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical, mechanical and grazing control. In the other one, the mechanical destruction of rhizome was assessed by using a rome-type harrow in one and two harrowings. In both trials, density and coverage were periodically measured by the line interception method, and the pastures were phytosociologically evaluated, thus determining its biomass and the "caraguatá" biomass. The results of the first trial yielded significant differences in density, coverage and biomass in favor of the integrated control of weed, which also allowed recovering of the pastures, while differences in its specific composition stood out with the outcoming of species of forage interest. The Picloram + 2,4-D herbicide showed a relative efficacy to control "caraguatá" from the 60 to 90 days of application. There were no phytotoxicity symptoms. Weed received the highest impact with mechanical treatment with rome harrow in two harrowings, but a better response from the pastures was observed with one harrowing, although 10 months later its specific composition returned to the initial situation in both treatments.

*Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (UNER), Argentina.. E-mail: vlallana@arcride.edu.ar