Abstracts - CDT Nº 30
Documents Science, Technology and Society   
[Index] - [Español]
bullet Epistemology and Knowledge practices
Violeta Guyot*
Key Words : Epistemology, knowledge practices, theory-practice relationship
The extraordinary transformation of the world occurred since the Modern Age puts humanity in the position of facing a crossroads. The crises in different aspects of social life represent the greatest challenge for a rationality that seeks to get free of the excluding interweaving of scientific-technological logos to achieve fuller forms of existence, and the attempts to rethink knowledge in the double edge of theory and practice become valuable. Thus, we place the teaching, researching and professional practices as knowledge practices that produce forms of subjectivity in the actual occurrence of the praxis. Knowledge, by a recurrent operation, may return to itself to watch and correct itself, and include the practical intervention as a moment of the theory in view of the action judged epistemologically and ethically appraised in its own becoming.
* Full Professor of the Chairs of Philosophy and Epistemology of the degree and post-degree careers, Universidad Nacional de San Luis; Director of the Research Project “Epistemological Trends and Theories on Subjectivity. Its Impact on Human Sciences”, SECYT, UNSL, and the National Program for Incentivation for Teaching and Research; Director of the “Society and Institutions” Master’s Degree; Academic Secretary, Centro Latinoamericano de Estudios Ilya Prigogine, UNSL, San Luis, Argentina. E-mail: vguyot@unsl.edu.ar

Humanities - Social Sciences  
[Index] - [Español]up
bullet Interaction between Children to Write, Assess and Rewrite Texts*
Mabel Pipkin Embón**, Fabiana Viñas, Amanda Blazer, Mónica Sforza, Marcela Auch y Sonia Lúquez
Key Words : interaction between children - written summary - coherence - cohesion - evaluation by teachers.
We investigated the making of written summaries and the way in which the students interacted with their fellows to write, assess, correct and rewrite them, as well as the epistemological presuppositions of teachers at the time of evaluating them. The corpus of data was constituted by 96 written summaries by students from the 5th and 7th EGB1 grades individually (pre and post-test) and in couples, on 14 narrative texts and journalistic news. We conducted a descriptive-quantitative analysis and another descriptive-qualitative one, which enabled us to know the categories being studied: topic, structure, progression, thematic, inferential processing, and cohesion resources. Results showed that interaction between children resulted highly positive, since the entire group obtained a greater score in the final situation in comparison to the initial one. This significant difference occurred according to the reading condition. In a way, the group of bad readers was leveled with the good readers, thus achieving more coherent texts and making a better use of cohesion resources.
*) Article derived from the homonymous research project, led in the Faculty of Educational Sciences, supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; submitted in June 2004 and accepted in February 2005. **) Director of the research team, Doctor in Psychology, Regular Professor, Workshop on Psycho Pedagogy, Faculty of Educational Sciences; Coordinator of the UNER subsee of the UNESCO’s Chair for the Improving of Reading and Writing Quality in Latin America. E-mail: mpipkin@satlink.com

bullet Vocational Guidance and Educational System in the Province of Entre Ríos*
Zunilda Ulla de Costa* *, Zulma Lenarduzzi, María Laura Chapero, Gabriela Bojarsky, Susana Nadalich y Bárbara Correa
Key words: vocational-career guidance - educational guidance - guides - pedagogical advisors - educational system
We present the results of a research on the characteristics of programs and services of Orientation in Public Secondary Schools and National Universities of Paraná, Oro Verde and San Benito (Province of Entre Ríos). Specifically, we obtained knowledge on the population that attends such educational institutions and the problems that require guidance, guidance professionals, the tasks they perform, their education and training needs, economic and material resources they have available, the objectives they set, intervention modalities and instruments used, and the evaluation and supervision mechanisms they have. Such results will be integrated with the contributions by other teams from National Universities that have performed similar studies in their areas of influence and the coordination of which is under the responsibility of the Argentinean Association of Vocational Guides of National Universities (AOUNAR by its acronym in Spanish), entity that is part of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG).
*) This article derives from the Final Report of a research Project led in the Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER, 2000-2002, supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; Final Report aproved by Res.CS # 137/04; submitted in September 2004 and accepted in February 2005.
**) Psychologist, Director of the research team, Regular Professor, Área of Vocational and Educational Advisoring and the course of Educational Advisoring, Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER. E-mail: alzuco@infovia.com.ar

bullet History of Education in Entre Ríos: Who Reads, What Is Read, and How do Entre Ríos Inhabitants Read during the First Decades of the 20th Century*
Edgardo Ossanna**, María del Pilar López, Virginia Kummer, Mónica Ugalde, Mariano Hadad, Fernando Baffico, Valeria Olalla
Key words: reading - literacy - social subjects - reading strategies - school texts.
This research attempted to reconstruct interpretatively and dynamically the field of reading in Entre Ríos during the first decades of the 20th Century in a broad sense, approaching both the educated and the non-educated practice, and taking into account matters such as reading strategies, reading scenarios, reading-power relationship, reading social subjects. An important set of variables (quantitative and qualitative) was put forth for an active dialogue with numerous and varied information sources from different origins. The conclusions tend to show that, at the beginning of the 20th Century, Entre Ríos was undoubtedly headed towards a literate society, but a large part of its inhabitants did not have access to reading. There were important efforts to produce written texts (newspapers, magazines, advertisements) although many of the addressees could only access them through other readers or decoding the images -if there were any-. There was a growing market for the production and circulation of reading goods, but with defined limits and with insufficient consistency to be able to support it.
*) This article exposes the homonymous research project lead at the Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER, 2000-2004, supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; it was submitted in November 2004 and accepted in April 2005. **) Research project Director, Full-time regular professor, Social History of the Argentina Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER. (Lic. Adriana de Miguel was co-director of the Project until April 2003). e-mail: eossanna@arnet.com.ar

Exact and Natural Sciences - Engineering and Technologies 
[Index] - [Español]up

bullet Semiautomatic Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images based on Artificial Neural Networks*
Bartolomé Drozdowicz**, Guillermo Bernasconi, Mariano Reyes, Fernando Saba, Gonzalo Simón
Key words : image segmentation - magnetic resonance - neural networks - multilayer networks - self organizing maps.
Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is its factorization in natural units, normal tissues (gray matter, white matter, cerebral spinal fluid, etc.) and possible pathological tissues (tumors, edema, etc.). MRIs are a standard diagnostic tool, and unlike other study methods by imaging (CAT, PET, etc.), these have multidimensional characteristics, since there are different modalities to generate the images (T1, T2, proton density), which are employed to constitute the patterns used during training and testing of networks. Segmentation is particularly significant in such functions as: extracting anatomical features, volumetric measurement, 3D visualization, data compression, radiotherapy planning and surgery planning. The objective of the research, the results of which are presented here, was to explore the potential of different structures of neuronal networks to perform brain MRI segmentation and to analyze the different processes of data pre-processing, necessary to obtain the greatest efficacy from the networks.
*) This article presents the results of an homonymous research project developed at the Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, supported by the SICTFRH, 1998-2000; submitted in December 2004 and accepted in March 2005.
**) Director of the research team, Faculty of Engineering, UNER. E-mail: bdrozdo@ceride.gov.ar

bullet Computerized Modeling of Physical Systems; Their Incidence on the Educational Process*
Francisco J. Marcos**, E. R. Bouchet, O. E. Di Liscia, C. E. Freyre, D.E. Martínez, D. M Berman
Key words: Didactics of Physics - system - models - teaching-learning process - devices
The present paper constitutes a proposal for using informatics as an active instrument capable of enabling the teaching-learning process, as well as experimenting on physical laws and principles in ideal conditions through a proper selection of variables. The development of models and devices achieved through an appropriate computerized methodology, compatible with the scientific activity applicable to the educational process, allows to accomplish the study of physical systems from the perspective of Physics as a basic discipline, and favors the implementation of new strategies aiming at overcoming the negative incidence of preconceptions in the learning process.
*) Paper derived from an homonimous research project developed in the School of Agricultural Sciencies of the UNER, financially supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; Final Report aproved by por Res. CS Nº 240/03; submitted in February 2004 and accepted in December 2004.
**) Director of the research project; Regular Professor of Física I y II, School of Agricultural Sciences, UNER. E-mail: fjmarcos@arnet.com.ar

bullet Determination of Oleic and Linoleic Acids from Human Blood Serum by Reverse-Phase HPLC*
Miguel A. Puttini**, Carlos M. Vuarant***, Julio Fournier, Claudia Lesa, César Huter,
Juan Ruíz Díaz, Analía Romero
Key words: lipoproteins - fatty acids - methyl esters
In order to determine if the fatty acids that constitute triacylglycerides, phospholipids and esters of cholesterol, influence on cholesterol and triacylglycerides levels in blood, and if these, in turn, are related to structural modifications of LDLs that are produced as a consequence of the nature of these fatty acids, it was necessary to modify and standardize Folch’s method (1957), with the aim of extracting blood lipids, obtaining the corresponding methyl esters, and thus solving and quantifying by reverse-phase HPLC. In this article we indicate the advancements obtained in the quantification of two fatty acids: oleic acid and linoleic acid, after the samples were treated by Folch’s method, modified by this work team, highlighting the virtues of HPLC for its treatment.
*) Article derived from the research project “Effects of Fatty Acids of the Human Plasma Lipids Composition Upon the Lipoproteins Physical and Chemical Parameters”, College of Food Sciences, UNER; submitted in March 2003 and accepted in April 2005.
**) Professor and researcher, Director of the research team, died in July 2003.
***) vuarantcm@fcal.uner.edu.ar

Agricultural Sciences - Medical Sciences  
[Index] - [Español] up

bullet In Vitro Multiplication of Eucalyptus Dunnii*
Cristina E. Billard **, Víctor H. Lallana ***
Key words: in vitro culture - micro propagation - rooting - Eucalyptus Dunnii
Eucalyptus dunnii is one of the species considered promising to be developed in heavy soils in the Province of Entre Ríos; its multiplication is made mostly by seeds, especially imported ones. In this article, we present the results of a study on the implementation of micropropagation techniques by in vitro culture of Eucalyptus dunnii. We worked with two types of explants: uninodal segments and epicormic shoots, sowed in the nutritional culture mediums Murashige & Skoog and Mc Cown, with the addition or not of different hormonal combinations (cytokinins and auxins). The results for the multiplication of uninodal segments showed that alternating cytokinins induced an increase in the number of shoots. The combination of 0.05 mg/l of indole butyric acid with 0.5 mg/l of kinetin manifested a significant difference regarding quantity and length of shoots, in comparison to other combinations. The induction of epicormic shoots was achieved, but not its evolution in culture mediums. By the implementation of these techniques, the rooting of E. dunnii explants, which was the hypothesis posed in the study, could not be achieved.
* Article derived from the research Project # 2064, 1998-2001, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, UNER; supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; submitted in February 2005 and accepted en April.
** Research project’s Director since November 2000; Assistant Professor, Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, UNER. e-mail: cbillard@fca.uner.edu.ar
*** Research project’s Director until November 2000; Regular Professor, Plant Physiology, UNER.

bullet Symptoms Produced by Albugo Tragopogonis in Sunflowers of Entre Ríos (Argentina)*
Ladys Fálico**; Griselda Visintín; María Evangelina Alcaraz
Key words: Albugo tragopogonis - symptoms - white rust - sunflower
In Argentina, the sunflower white rust (Albugo tragopogonis) manifests through different symptoms, especially leaf pustules similar to chlorotic blisters in the bundle of the leafs, with a mass of sporangia in the back. Our objective was to describe different types of symptoms caused naturally by Albugo tragopogonis in lines and hybrids of sunflowers implanted in Entre Ríos, Argentina, and to compare them with symptoms observed in South Africa. Starting from natural infections produced by Albugo tragopogonis in cultures of the commercial hybrid Agrobel 920 and 16 public lines, in an experimental field, different types of symptoms were recorded in bloom and physiological maturity, classifying them in five groups by characteristics and the plant organ affected, according to the outline proposed by Gulya et al. Just like in South-Africa, Albugo tragopogonis produced symptoms in leaf blades, stalks, stems and capitula, but also in nerves, which is new. The symptoms induced by asexual states are observed in leaf blades and bracts; those induced in the sexual phase are expressed in nerves, stalks, stems, bracts and the back of the receptacle.
*) Article derived from a research project about the Diaporthe/Phomopsis helianthi Complex, developed at the School of Agricultural Sciences, UNER, supported by the SCITFRH, UNER.
**) Director of the research team, Agronomical Engineer, Full regular Professor of Phytopathology, School of Agricultural Sciences, UNER. Email: lfalico@fca.uner.edu.ar