Abstracts - CDT Nº 31
Documents Science, Technology and Society   
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bullet Effects of Transduction: a new Criticism to the Acritical Transference of Concepts and Institutional Models
Thomas, Hernán **; Dagnino, Renato ***
Key Words : transduction - local adjustment - scientific and technological policy - Latin America
The conceptual and instrumental reference framework of public policies regarding Science, Technology and Innovation used in Latin America have shown to be increasingly inappropriate to respond to the challenges of the socio-economic development and the regional democratization processes. The purpose of this article is to analyze critically both conceptualizations currently in use in the region as institutional models implemented in the local public policies of Science, Technology and Innovation. With such aim, the concept of “transduction” (auto-organized process of alteration of sense that appears when an element -an idea, concept, technology or heuristic tool- is moved from one systemic context to another) is proposed as a proper analytical tool to understand both explanatory limitations for the concepts currently in use, and the construction dynamics of local normative rhetoric.
*) This article exposes results of research activities supported by grants of the Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Commission for Scientific Research of the Province of Buenos Aires) (CIC) and the Fondo para la Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (Found for Scientific and Technological Research) (FONCYT) of Argentina, being part of the production within the frame of cooperation between the Grupo de Análise de Política Científica e Tecnológica e de Inovação (GAPCTI/UNICAMP) (Brazil) and the Instituto de Estudios sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología (Institute for Studies on Science & Technology), of the Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (IEC/UNQ) (Argentina).
**) Instituto de Estudios sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología Universidad Nacional de Quilmas; CONICET.

Humanities - Social Sciences  
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bullet Juvenile delinquency in Paraná and its relationship with social exclusion conditions*
Anzola, María G. **; Iglesias, Carlos; Petrucci, Alicia R.; Prado Alvarez, Gerardo
Key Words :youth - vulnerability - social exclusion - crime - Paraná
In the city of Paraná (Argentina), an accelerated process of increase of criminal facts has been emerging, which generates insecurity among the citizens. Here, we display the results from a study on juvenile delinquency and its relationship with social exclusion conditions in Paraná. From the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, we could conclude that the different poverty situations do not determine by themselves the phenomenon of juvenile delinquency, which does not invalidate the hypothesis that the Argentine social and political structure in general, and the one in this city particularly, does not develop mechanisms for social inclusion. A profile of youngsters in conflict with the criminal law was prepared and we found among them social similarities and few particular differences prior to the criminal behavior. Their mode of connection to the crime and the logics present in their actions convey individual expressions of an overflowing situation of a socially constructed phenomenon.
*) Article derived from the homonymous research project, led in the Faculty of Educational Sciences, supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; submitted in June 2004 and accepted in February 2005. **) Director of the research team, Doctor in Psychology, Regular Professor, Workshop on Psycho Pedagogy, Faculty of Educational Sciences; Coordinator of the UNER subsee of the UNESCO’s Chair for the Improving of Reading and Writing Quality in Latin America. E-mail: mpipkin@satlink.com

bullet Violence Against Women and Gender Discrimination: a Socio-Semiotic Study*
Arfuch, Leonor **; Rozados, Laura; Cattaneo, Maria J.; Rosa, Claudia
Key words: domestic violence - women - juridical discourse - gender discrimination - socio-semiotics
Our paper approaches, through reading a juridical corpus about a criminal case, the violence applied on women and gender discrimination not only on their bodies, but also in the letter, in discourses constructed within the framework of justice, in this report where each of the protagonists –witnesses, family members, friends, neighbors, experts- provide their view on the victim –in this case, a young mother who was murdered, a deed that was ordered by her former husband- which is also a social view on the victim, where the different ways of understanding sex/gender, stereotypes, family relationships and power mechanisms are expressed. The language is characterized by the lawfulness of the file, where it is possible to apprehend a “second violence” applied there, where an ethics based on a fair consideration of the difference maybe should reverberate. To the juridical corpus, one on printing press was added.
*) This article derives from the Final Report of a research Project led in the Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER, 2000-2002, supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; Final Report aproved by Res.CS # 137/04; submitted in September 2004 and accepted in February 2005.
**) Psychologist, Director of the research team, Regular Professor, Área of Vocational and Educational Advisoring and the course of Educational Advisoring, Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER. E-mail: alzuco@infovia.com.ar

bullet Participation in International Economy, Systemic Competitiveness, and Contributions to Local Productive Development of Cooperatives in Entre Ríos*
Barbosa,Oscar G. **; Grippo, Rodolfo
Key words: cooperativism - social economy - competitiveness - local development - globalization
Taking as index cases the rice, apiculture and milk sectors, the insertion within international economy by agro-industrial cooperatives from Entre Ríos was studied during the decade of 1990’s as well as their contributions to employment and local economies (until 2001). Their national and international competitive strategies, the participation in local-regional development, technological capacities and ways to realize the cooperative principles as an active variable are analyzed. Proposals are presented for a virtuous insertion of cooperatives within external and internal markets from their protagonism in local development. This requires a new pioneer spirit, reconsider company strategies, an analysis on better ways to realize cooperative principles and an alliance with technological and university players to construct local and sector systems for innovating, which may enhance local employment capacities and degrees of national freedom in the face of hegemonic globalization.
*) This article exposes the results of a research Project developed at the Faculty of Economical Sciencies, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (National University of Entre Ríos) (UNER), supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; submitted in December 2004 and accepted in September 2005.
**) Master in Social Sciences, Director of the research team, Full Professor of Social and Economical Research Methodology, Faculty of Economical Sciences, UNER; Head Professional at the CERIDE/CONICET (Santa Fe). E-mail: cparana@ceride.gov.ar

bullet Construction of Meaning in Curricular Problems*
Candioti de De Zan, María Elena **; Migueles, María Amelia; Quinteros, Mónica; Herrera, Mariela; Aymá, Ana
Key words: knowledge - language - education - meaning - validity
Starting from the hypothesis that the epistemological problem about social construction of meaning has a special relevance for curricula studies, whether related to the adopted approach or the criteria and procedures for selection, classification and legitimation of contents, a research was conducted oriented to the analysis of epistemological and linguistic matters related to the curricula problem. We tried to make sense production and legitimation processes explicit, and to explain the role of language in its constitutive and communicative functions. We particularly attempted to explain the impact that the so-called “linguistic expression” implies on the educational order, as well as the abandonment of language considered as a mere instrument for transmitting closed conceptual contents, to adopt a constructive approach of it, thus admitting that meaningful contents are prepared in communicative processes within historical contexts that imply resignification acts.
*) This paper comes from the research project: “The Construction of Meaning in the Problem of Curriculum from the Approach of Educational Epistemology”, conducted in the Faculty of Educational Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (National University of Entre Ríos) (UNER), supported by the SICTFRH, UNER, in 1999-2002; submitted in July 2004 and accepted in July 2005.
**) Director of the research team, Full Professor of Epistemology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER, Paraná (Argentina). E-mail: macandioti@arnet.com.ar

Exact and Natural Sciences - Engineering and Technologies 
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bullet Bodies in Movement: A study on Publications and Representations Held by Undergraduate Students*
Giorgi, Silvia M. **; Pozzo, Roberto L.; Concari, Sonia B.
Key words : Didactics of Physics - Mechanics - Force - Movement - Preconceptions
This paper is about the previous ideas on “bodies in movement” held by students that begin a basic course of Mechanics at university level. The specific physical concepts involved in the representations of the students about this topic were investigated from two points of view: the one of the researchers which was accomplished through a revision of publications on the topic, and the one of the students by analyzing their ideas and conceptualizations. The scanty coherence and the diversity of results found in the analyzed investigations provided guidelines to approach the problem from a new both theoretical and methodological perspective. It was found that the physical concept of “quantity of movement” is present in the initial representations of the students, although they use the word force to refer to it. The problem of the intuitive knowledge would be related with semantic problems.
*) This paper is derived from the Dissertation of the first author in order to accede to the Magister on Scientific and Technological Research Degree, research study directed by the co-authors, within the frame of the projects: PIP CONICET 03080 and CAI+D 2005 / PI 06-32 UNL. Submitted in October 2004 and accepted in August 2005.
**) Engineer, MSc.; GIDEAF, Department of Physics, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, (3000) Santa Fe, Argentina. E-mail: sgiorgi@fiqus.unl.edu.ar

bullet Physicochemical and Microbiological Characterization of Orange Juices for Orange Wine Production*
Hours, Roque A. **;Ferreyra, María M.; Schvab, María del C.; Gerard, Liliana M.; Zapata, Luz M.;
Davies, Cristina V.
Key words: orange wine - orange juice - yeasts
Juices from oranges of different varieties and maturity were characterized. pH oscillated between 3.40±0.18 (Valencia) and 3.77±0.31 (Navelina). Early-season varieties yielded less juice (43 and 41%) than the others (50, 47 and 50%). Soluble solids varied between 9.75 y 13.61 ºBrix. Acidity decreased, particularly for Navelina and New Hall, which showed the greatest increase of the ratio. The reducing/total sugars ratio was @ 0.5. Ascorbic acid increased in Navelina and W. Navel, and decreased in the others. No differences were observed among the amino nitrogen averages, and total nitrogen oscillated between 68 y 94 mg/100 ml. Early-season varieties showed a higher hesperidin content (Navelina, 108.91 mg/100 ml). Essential oils decreased with the harvesting time. Nine species of Candida, Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Trichosporum and Rhodotorula were isolated form the yeast-like flora A Saccharomyces cerevisiae with adequate enological properties was isolated from the fermented juice.
*) This article exposes partial results of a Study on the Elaboration of Citric Wines made in 2001-2003 in the Faculty of Sciences of Feeding, supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; submitted in May 2005 and accepted in July.
**)Doctor in Biochemical Sciences, Director of the research team, Department of Sciences of Feeding, Faculty of Sciences of Feeding, UNER; CINDEFI, Faculty of Exact Sciences, National University of La Plata (Argentina). E-mail: hours@biotec.org.ar

bullet Washing process optimization of mechanically deboned poultry meat
Perlo, Flavia *; Teira, Gustavo A.; Bonato, Patricia I.; Schvab, María del C.; Ferreyra, M. M.
Key words: poultry meat - mechanically deboned meat - washed meat - thermal
Mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) is a by-product of poultry meat industry. It has a low price because its darker color is undesirable in poultry meat products directed towards the white meat market. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the washing process on the characteristics of mechanically deboned poultry meat and to optimize the process so as to employ MDPM as a substitute for whole muscle in restructured poultry meat products. The washing times studied were: 10, 20 or 30 min and the washing numbers studied were: 2, 3 or 4. The results suggest that the most effective extraction of heme pigments was obtained with 4 washing steps of 30 min each. However, to achieve a color similar to breast poultry meat, 4 washing steps of 10 min each or 3 washing steps of 30 min each are enough.
*) Article derived from the research project: Making of chicken surimi from mechanically recovered meat, lead during 2000-2002 at the Laboratory of Meat Industries in the Faculty of Sciences of Feeding, supported by the SICTFRH, UNER; submitted in June 2005 and accepted in September.
**)Doctor in Science and Technology of Food Products. Director of the research team, Associated Professor of Industrial Processes II, Faculty of Sciences of Feeding, UNER. E-mail: perlof@fcal.uner.edu.ar

bullet Automatic speech recognition with artificial neuronal nets*
Milone, Diego H. **
Key words: artificial neuronal nets – automatic speech recognition – hidden Markov models
Over the last decade, the foundations and applications of artificial neuronal nets have been intensely researched, and a great deal of efforts has been invested in the area of automatic speech recognition. This paper presents an extensive review and critical analysis of the application of artificial neuronal nets to automatic speech recognition. Its background from the decade of 1980’s is mentioned, and the works that constitute a direct application of the classical techniques of artificial neuronal nets are described. We discuss the works in which new neuronal architectures have been developed oriented to solving the problem of automatic speech recognition, and we also present numerous works that consist of the combination of artificial neuronal nets and hidden Markov models. Finally, a comparative analysis on the different approaches and key points that guide the researches about new paradigms on this problem is made
*) This work was undertaken within the frame of the following research projects: PID #6062, UNER, 2001-2004, PICT 2002 #11-12700 A Type, National Agency for Scientific and Techonological Promotion, FONCYT, 2004 (under development) and CAI+D 2005 #72 , A Type, UNL, 2005 (under development).
**) Doctor Engineer, researcher of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (Argentina), Associate Professor, FICH, Universidad Nacional del Litoral (Argentina). E-mail: d.milone@ieee.org