Abstracts - CDT Nº 33
  Humanities - Social Sciences  
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bullet Educational Reforms and Citizenship (in order to think about the context of the new Law for Education)
Germán Cantero**, Susana Celman***, Zunilda Ulla de Costa, Gabriela Andretich, Stella Altamirano,
Nora Grinóvero, Paula Olivieri, Silvina Fernández, María L. Chapero, Martín Repetti, Deolidia Martínez Oyhamburu,
Ingrid Sverdlick, Silvia Serra, Andrea Corrado Vázquez, Paula Medela, César Ipucha
Key Words : Educational reform - citizenship - teaching working conditions - evaluation - educational training
This research aimed to infer the incidence of educational reforms in the generation of new conditions for citizen education in order to be able to raise awareness about characteristics that this educational model has adopted in cases representative of the diversity that the reforms have imprinted upon the third course of Basic General Education (EGB). Specifically, the research focused on the implemented changes and possible resistances to the EGB3 in five schools considered as fields of practice (three in the Province of Entre Ríos and two in the Province of Buenos Aires), through four main analytic lines which allowed us to understand the educational reform as a social regulation process: teaching working conditions, institutions and subjects evaluation, teachers and professors training and educational materials. The reforms were analyzed as Neoliberal and of so-called modernization processes instruments of regulation and, more specifically, the focus was on the consequences that those processes would have in the conformation of new citizen identities by way of the reforms.
*) This paper exposes results of a research project developed at the Faculty of Educational Sciences of the Nacional University of Entre Ríos (UNER), funded by the SICTFRH -UNER, Final Report approved through Res.CS #298/05; submitted in November 2005 and accepted in August 2006.
**) Director of the Research Team, Regular Professor of Educational Planning, Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER, and of the Department of Education, National University of Luján. E-mail: germanc@gigared.com
***) Co-Director, Regular Professor of Evaluation, Faculty of Educational Sciences, UNER; Academic Secretary of the UNER.

bullet University, Teaching and Research in Venezuela: Department of Accounting and Finances of the University of the Andes*
Rosa Aura Casal de Altuve**
Key Words : research - teaching - strategies - accounting knowledge - university
The primary objective of this paper is to serve as a comparative basis for other Latin American countries studies that could be considering similar symptoms in the Accounting research area. The starting point is a case study of the faculty members at the Department of Accounting and Finances of the Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences of the University of the Andes. The paper analyzes the relationship between research and teaching and whether the department is fulfilling its goals or not. A secondary objective is to determine the possible factors that have had a significant influence upon the research and teaching performance of the researchers. Using interviews and direct data collection, institutional strategies are considered in order to set the aims of the research activities.
*) Paper derived from a research project funded by the Council for the Scientific, Humanistic and Technological Development (CDCHT), University of The Andes (ULA), Mérida, Venezuela, conducted in September 2003-June 2005; first submitted in November 2005, modified version in April 2006, accepted in August 2006.
**) Regular Professor at the Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences, ULA, Mérida, Venezuela. In charge of the coordination of the Journal Actualidad Contable FACES and Head of the Research Team GIFACE in the same Faculty. E-mail: casalrosa@cantv.net

bullet Dimensions of Poverty in Paraná and Concordia. A Comparative Study*
Graciela Mingo de Bevilacqua**, Elisa Sarrot, Miguel Bitar, Alicia González Alarcón, Mirta Soijet, César Sione, Gabriela Romero
Key words: poverty - urban poverty - social inequality - migrations
This comparative study attempted to reveal the heterogeneities of urban poverty that frame the life of poor families in two agglomerations of the Province of Entre Ríos: Paraná and Concordia. We considered poverty as a heterogeneous phenomenon, not only by magnitude and intensity but also by configuration, conditioned by the urban environment and the economic and social structures. Over the last decade of the 20th Century and the first years of the 21st C., poverty was enhanced and several structural transformations occurred in Argentina which, undoubtedly, made social inequality worse. They can be summarized in: state reform, privatizations and labor reforms, recessive processes and outsourcing of economy. Description perspectives and methodological analyses are framed within the style of complementarity, in order to achieve a deeper approach to reproduction of poverty and the strategies of poor homes.
*) This paper derives from the research Project: "Poverty from its inside, plurality of the concept through a comparative study between Paraná and Concordia", 2000-2003, Faculty of Social Work, funded by the SICTFRH, National University of Entre Ríos (UNER); manuscript submitted in October 2005, modified manuscript in July 2006, admission in August 2006.
**) Regular Professor of Methodology for the Social Research, Cuantitative Methods and Technics and Statistical Analysis, Faculty of Social Work, UNER. E-mail: gbevi@arnet.com.ar

bullet Focal Group and Local Development: contributions for a theoretical-methodological coordination*
Sandra Bertoldi**, María Elisa Fiorito, Mabel Álvarez
Key words: Focal Group - Research scene - Reflexivity - Local Development
The aim of this article is to display a way of questioning a technique for the gathering of information through the analysis of the interaction process of the reflexivities involved (researcher-informant), and at the same time show how fertile it is in the field of local development, because it enables to grasp and interpret social relations and processes. The technique analyzed is the Focal Group. Its application and the constant reflection on its implementation have led us to some considerations, adjustments and reformulations that have driven us away from what has been methodologically prescribed, but which have made it possible for us to make progress in the shaping of a new technique which we think is more adequate for research in the field of local development. We are particularly interested in the development of the construction of the "scene" required for its implementation in the case of research on this subject.
*) A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the VI Reunion on Anthropology of the MERCOSUR: Identity, Fragmentation and Diversity, held by the Department on social Anthropology , FHCE -UDELAR, at Montevideo, 1st to 18th November 2005. Paper submitted in December 2005, modified version in June 2006, accepted in August 2006.
**) Master's degree in Methodology for Scientific and Technical Research, Lecturer and researcher at the Comahue National University. E-mail: bertoldi@rnonline.com.ar

bullet AIDS/STI and Sexuality in Newly Enrolled College Students*
Francisco Rodríguez**, Silvia E. Primo, Evangelina Martínez Calvo, Martín Sánchez
Key words: AIDS - sexually transmitted infections - sexuality
This is a report on the results of a survey about AIDS/STI and sexuality conducted on the population of students starting their first year in college from the 2003 cohort of the National University of Entre Ríos (Argentina). The purpose was to make a diagnosis of their sources of information about sexuality, their knowledge about STI/AIDS, sexual behavior (initiation and prevention practices) and possible attitudes towards persons living with HIV/AIDS. We consider that the identification of the needs of this young population is very important in order to more specifically address to them preventive actions, according to the place where they live and taking into account that the different academic seats of the university are distributed throughout the Entre Ríos Province. The results were compared with the ones from a similar survey applied to newly enrolled students in 1998, looking for changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices.
*This paper presents a survey conducted by the Team on Prevention of ITS/Aids, from the Provost´s Secretary for Community Services and Cultural Activities of the National University of Entre Ríos (Argentina); submitted in March 2005, modified text in March 2006, admitted in October 2006.
**) Head of the Team, Psichologist and Social Psichologist in the Secretary for Community Services and Cultural Activities, UNER. E-mail: frodrigue@ciudad.com.ar

  Exact and Natural Sciences - Engineering and Technologies  
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bullet Spatio-temporal characteristics of the preimplantational embryonic development in Myocastor coypus (coypu)
Antonio E. Felipe**
Key words : preimplantational development - coypu - Myocastor coypus.
Myocastor coypus (coypu) is a rodent world-wide used as a skin species. The purpose of the present study was to determine the morphology of the pre-implantation embryonic development in Myocastor coypus (coypu). Thirty-three virgin and sexually mature females allotted in 6 family nuclei and 1 male were utilised. The mating program implied the daily colpocytological examination by using standardised routine techniques. Samples for the colpocytological follow-up were collected from all the animals between 11 and 11:30 hours a.m. The observation of vaginal smears was done directly within 5 minutes of sampling. The controlled mating methodology was used. After the oestrus was established by colpocytology, the female was immediately moved to the male's pen. The embryonic age was determined in days post-coitus (d.p.c.), establishing as day 0 the day when spermatozoa were identified in the vaginal smear. Oocytes and embryos were obtained by flushing from day 0 to 10 post-coitus (p.c.). On day 1 p.c., oocytes predominated whereas on day 2 p.c. zygote were predominant. The cleavage period was from day 3 to day 6 p.c. Morulae were collected from day 6 to 9 p.c., whereas blastocysts were collected in days 8 and 9. From oviduct flushing, embryos in zygote and up to morula with less than 30 cells stage were recovered. Embryos in morula with 30 or more cells and up to blastocyst in growth stage were collected from the flushing of hemiuteri.
*) Paper derived from the author’s dissertation to receive the Master Degree on Methodology for the Scientific and Technical Research (National University of Entre Ríos); manuscript submitted in October 2005, modified manuscript in February 2006, admission in June 2006.
**) Veterinarian, Natural Sciences Teaching Degree, Asisten Professor in Histology Embriology and Teratology, Faculty of Veterinarian Sciences, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, (7000) Tandil, R. Argentina. E-mail: aefelipe@vet.unicen.edu.ar

bullet Beef quality. Nutritive and organoleptic aspects related to feeding systems and technological procedures*
Gustavo Teira**, Flavia Perlo, Patricia Bonato, Osvaldo Tisocco
Key words: beef quality - feeding system - composition - technological procedures
Extensive feeding systems produce beef with physical, chemical and nutritive characteristics that show greater differentiation than those obtained by intensive feeding system with a longer confinement finishing period. Highly energetic grain-based diets become particularly interesting in such aspects as fat colour, tenderness, lipidic insaturation and growth rate. However, potential problems like organoleptic alterations, reduction of shelf life, lower concentration of conjugated linoleic acid and a higher relation of fatty acids n6/n3 should also be taken into consideration. In addition, none or inadequate application of technological procedures by the meat industry can lead to the deterioration and increase in variability of those attributes most valued in the market. Information concerning the type of beef being purchased as well as the ways of preparation should be available in order to guarantee consumer satisfaction.
*) This paper has been contributed from the Laboratory of Meat Industries, Faculty of Food Sciences, National University of Entre Rios -UNER; submitted in September 2005 and accepted in Septembre 2006.
**) Doctor in Technology of Food Sciences; Regular Profesor of Industrial Processes II; Adjunt Director of the Laboratory of Meat Industries, Faculty of Food Sciencies, UNER. E-mail: teirag@fcal.uner.edu.ar.

bullet Current Source with High Impedance Output for Functional Neuromuscular Stimulators*
Justo Chaves, Sergio Escobar, Carolina Tabernig**
Key words: current sources - functional neuromuscular stimulation - design - electronics
Functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) is a rehabilitation technique which can be applied to people with motor control difficulties and it is employed to replace or assist a loosed o diminished motor function. It consists on the excitation of the healthy peripherical innervations by means of electrical pulses to perform muscular contraction. Systems that employ FNS have a constant current source at the output. These systems may be multichannel systems and they activate different motor groups through the application of active electrodes and only one indifferent electrode. This issue requires particular characteristics for the current sources. In this article we present the design of a constant current source to be employed at the output of FNS systems which give monophasic and biphasic stimulation pulses and their outputs maintain high impedance mine while they are not active. Results show that the current was constant facing variations in the output impedance and it presented a lineal relationship between the control input and current output. The design also gives the possibility of having biphasic pulses of different conformation at the output.
*) Article that exposes developements achieved in the project "Análisis de la marcha asistida por estimulación eléctrica". Head researcher: Mag.Bioing. Carolina Tabernig, Laboratory of Engineering on Neuromuscular and Sensorial Rehabilitarion & Research, Faculty of Engineering (Bioengineering), National University of Entre Ríos (UNER); funded by SICTFRH-UNER, 2001-2004; manuscript submitted in February 2005; modified text in March 2006, admission in June 2006.
**) Bioengineer, Assistant Professor in Electronics I, Department of Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, UNER. E-mail: justochaves@yahoo.com. Tel: 54-343-4363900.

  Agricultural Sciences - Medical Sciences  
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bullet Descriptive Analysis of the Evolution of the Technological Models Prevalent in Zavalla District (Santa Fe), from an Energetic Perspective*
Julio Denoia**, María S. Vilche, Sergio Montico, Beatriz Tonel, Néstor Di Leo
Key words: energy - technological model - energy balance
In the socio-economic and technological evolution of the agroecosystems of the pampean region in the last 30 years three productive models can be recognized: the agriculturization model, an intermediate one characterized by the launch of no till modality and transgenic soybean (RR gene), and the current model with high potential yield crops, consolidation of the no till system as well as the increasing use of agrochemicals. These technological models induced modifications in the agroecosystems feasible of being analyzed through energetic parameters, due to the tight association between the energy consumption, the agroecosystems productivity and the intensification of agriculture. Since 1970 there was a rise in the amount of energy employed by the agroecosystems, while the energetic efficiency remained high owed to the increase in the registered yields. Wheat turned out to be the least energetically efficient crop. The present technological model results in the highest labour yield.
*) This paper presents part of the results given by the the research Project # AGR 49: "Use of energy in the rural territory of the Ludueña Stream basin, Santa Fe", credits given by the Main Council of the National University of Rosario -UNR-, January to December 2004; submitted in October 2005, modified text in July 2006, admitted in September 2006.
**) Agronomical Engineer, Professor in Soil Management and researcher at the Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, UNR. E-mail: solum@knett.com.ar

bullet Brief Revision About Plants Cuticle Characteristics and Herbicide Penetration*
María del C. Lallana**; Cristina E. Billard**; José H. Elizalde** y Víctor H. Lallana***
Key words: cuticle - absorption - herbicide
This paper presents a brief review about the characteristics of the plants cuticle and its relationship with herbicide penetration as well as about the factors affecting that penetration. Structural aspects like waxes cuticle and environmental characteristics that determine the correct absorption of the herbicide were taken into account. References to a study carried out on Eryngium horridum, the presence of stomata and the differential penetration of the herbicides in sheaf and back of the leaves were done.
) This paper was part of the Final Report of the Research Project # 2076, under the direction of Dr. Victor H. Lallana, Regular Professor of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, National University of Entre Ríos (UNER); manuscript submitted in September 2005; modified text in September 2006, admitted in the same month.
**) Assistant Professor in Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, UNER; member of the referred research team. E-mail: maryl@fca.uner.edu.ar; malalla@arnet.com.ar.